A computer network is a digital telecommunications network that allows nodes to share resources. In a computer network, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections (data links) between nodes. These data links are established by wired media (such as wires or fiber optic cables) or wireless media (such as Wi-Fi).
Network computing devices that initiate, route, and terminate data are referred to as network nodes. Nodes are typically identified by network addresses and may include hosts such as personal computers, phones, and servers, as well as network hardware such as routers and switches. When one device is able to exchange information with another device, it can be said that two such devices are networked together, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communication protocols are layered (ie, carried as payloads) with other more general communication protocols. This powerful collection of information technology requires skilled network management to make it all reliable.
Computer networks support a wide range of applications and services, such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, application and storage servers, shared use of printers and fax machines, and the use of email and instant messaging applications, among many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, the communication protocols that organize network traffic, the size of the network, the topology, the flow control mechanisms, and the organizational intent. The most famous computer network is the Internet.
The chronology of important computer networks development includes:
In the late 1950s, early computer networks included the US military radar system semi-automatic ground environment (SAGE).
In 1959, Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov proposed a detailed plan to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to reorganize the control of the Soviet armed forces and the Soviet economy, OGAS, based on the networks of computing centers.
In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) launched two connected hosts.
1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memo to his colleagues in the office to discuss the concept of “interstellar computer network,” a computer networks designed to allow general communication between computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. In the same year, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research team supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used computers to route and manage phone connections.
Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davis pioneered the concept using the NPL networks, the National Physical Laboratory (UK) LAN with a line speed of 768 kbit / s.
In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch for true computer control.
In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on experimental wide-area networks (WAN) for computer time sharing.
In 1969, the first four nodes of ARPANET used a 50 kbit/s circuit connection between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to simulate the performance of packet switched networks, which supports the development of ARPANET. His theoretical work of layered routing with student Farouk Kamoun in the late 1970s is still critical to the operation of today’s Internet.
In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed and later used as the underlying infrastructure for extending TCP/IP networks.
In 1973, the French CYCLADES networks took the lead in letting the host be responsible for reliable data transmission, rather than the centralized service of network itself.
In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center describing Ethernet, a network system based on the Aloha network, by the 1960s by the University of Hawaii of Norman Developed by Abramson and his colleagues. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching of Local Computer Networks” and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978.In 1979, Robert Metcalfe used Ethernet as an open standard.
In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used for shared storage devices.
In 1995, Ethernet transmission speed capacity increased from 10 Mbit / s to 100 Mbit / s. By 1998, Ethernet supported gigabit transmission speeds. Subsequently, a higher speed of up to 400 Gbit / s was increased (as of 2018). The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as fast adaptation to support new fiber-optic cable speeds) is a factor in its continued use.
A computer network can be thought of as a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology, or computer engineering because it relies on the theory and practical application of related disciplines.
Computer networks promote interpersonal communication, allowing users to communicate effectively and easily in a variety of ways: email, instant messaging, online chat, telephone, video telephone calling , and video conferencing. The network allows sharing of networks and computing resources. Users can access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing documents on a shared network printer or using shared storage devices. The network allows the sharing of files, data and other types of information, enabling authorized users to access information stored on other computers on the network. Distributed computing uses computing resources on the network to accomplish tasks.
Hackers can use computer networks to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network through denial of service attacks.
It seems we can’t find what you’re looking for. Perhaps searching can help.